by Roger W. Seiler
Quantum-based Gravitation vs. Dark Matter
Years ago, astronomers discovered that in the outer reaches of spiral galaxies (like M100 at left), the orbital velocities of stars and gas clouds are much greater than expected according to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. This led to the theory that as much as 90 percent of the mass of a galaxy may be in a huge halo of dark matter that provides the gravitational influence needed to explain the high orbital velocities. However, dark matter is extremely difficult to detect, causing one of the greatest challenges of modern science. As predicted in the 1962 paper listed below, some of the effects of dark energy (not dark matter) on universal expansion were observed by astronomers in the late 1990's. Dark energy, originally called Constant Irrepressible Universal Energy (CIUE) in the 1962 paper was renamed "dynama" in 1984. That name seemed more appropriate to its apparent pervasive effects throughout all spacetime, especially with regard to antigravitation and gravitation. The theory's development since 1984 has depended largely on apparent connections between gravitation and quantum mechanics, which underlie its gravitational formulas.
This PC software demonstrates quantum-based gravitational formulas that due to the effects of dynama (dark energy) accounts for the orbital motions of objects in galaxies without requiring the gravitational presence of huge amounts of dark matter. Thus, the masses of galaxies are calculated to be close to the amount of mass that can be attributed to the matter that is actually visible. Indeed, the program's underlying quantum-based gravitational force formula is a general formula that applies to all circumstances from the close quarters of a black hole to the enormous space of galactic clusters. The software offers demonstrations of this formula at three widely different levels of spacial magnitude - solar system, galaxy and galactic cluster - and for each scale of space, provides results that match actual observations of visible matter. The primary basis of this formula is the realization that there is a relationship between the Newtonian gravitational constant G and the Planck quantum constants for mass, length and time, that interacts with dynama (dark energy) to provide an important key to understanding how antigravitation and gravitation work in all scales of space. The underlying mathematics of this program - which are demonstrated step by step - explore the possibility that both gravitational and anti-gravitational phenomena may result from the same type of energy throughout space, an energy called "dynama" in this context.
Recently discovered evidence of an accelerating expansion of the universe was predicted by the theory of dynama long ago, and the theory shows how it occurs. Two papers on this theory may be viewed via Acrobat reader:
How Dark Energy Can Create Both Antigravitation And Gravitation - February 2004, explains the Dynama-Opacity Theory of antigravitation and gravitation, as demonstrated in the Galactic Gravitation Calculator software, which can be downloaded below.
Theory On Constant Irrepressible Universal Energy - a theory on gravitation - February 1962, this short paper outlines the initial concept of the theory of dark energy, then called CIUE and later dynama, that evolved over the years into the Dynama-Opacity Theory of 1987, and which further developed into the theory most recently described in the February 2004 paper above.
Get a FREE download of the Galactic Gravitation Calculator software right here. See for yourself how it compares Newtonian gravitational calculations of galactic mass with the new quantum-based formula. An explanation of the gravitational theory underlying the operation of this program is included in the program's Help files, which can be printed out.
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