**by Roger W. Seiler**

**Quantum-based Gravitation vs. Dark Matter**

Years ago, astronomers discovered that in the outer
reaches of spiral galaxies (like M100 at left), the orbital velocities of stars and gas
clouds are much greater than expected according to Kepler's laws of planetary
motion. This led to the theory that as much as 90 percent of the mass of a galaxy
may be in a huge halo of dark matter that provides the gravitational influence needed to
explain the high orbital velocities. However, dark matter is extremely difficult to
detect, causing one of the greatest challenges of modern science. As predicted in the 1962
paper listed below, some of the effects of dark *energy* (not dark *matter*)
on universal expansion were observed by astronomers in the late 1990's. Dark energy,
originally called Constant Irrepressible Universal Energy (CIUE) in the 1962 paper was
renamed "dynama" in 1984. That name seemed more appropriate to its apparent
pervasive effects throughout all spacetime, especially with regard to antigravitation and
gravitation. The theory's development since 1984 has depended largely on apparent
connections between gravitation and quantum mechanics, which underlie its gravitational
formulas.

This PC software
demonstrates quantum-based gravitational formulas that due to the effects of dynama (dark
energy) accounts for the orbital motions of objects in galaxies *without* requiring
the gravitational presence of *huge* amounts of dark matter. Thus, the masses
of galaxies are calculated to be close to the amount of mass that can be attributed to the
matter that is actually visible. Indeed, the program's underlying
quantum-based gravitational force formula is a general formula that applies to all
circumstances from the close quarters of a black hole to the enormous space of galactic
clusters. The software offers demonstrations of this formula at three widely
different levels of spacial magnitude - solar system, galaxy and galactic cluster - and
for each scale of space, provides results that match actual observations of visible
matter. The primary basis of this formula is the realization that there is a
relationship between the Newtonian gravitational constant G and the Planck quantum
constants for mass, length and time, that interacts with dynama (dark energy) to provide
an important key to understanding how antigravitation and gravitation work in all scales
of space. The underlying mathematics of this program - which are
demonstrated step by step - explore the possibility that both gravitational and
anti-gravitational phenomena may result from the same type of energy throughout space, an
energy called "dynama" in this context.

Recently discovered evidence of an accelerating expansion of the universe was predicted by the theory of dynama long ago, and the theory shows how it occurs. Two papers on this theory may be viewed via Acrobat reader:

How Dark Energy Can Create Both Antigravitation And Gravitation - February 2004, explains the Dynama-Opacity Theory of antigravitation and gravitation, as demonstrated in the Galactic Gravitation Calculator software, which can be downloaded below.

Theory On Constant Irrepressible Universal Energy - a theory on gravitation - February 1962, this short paper outlines the initial concept of the theory of dark energy, then called CIUE and later dynama, that evolved over the years into the Dynama-Opacity Theory of 1987, and which further developed into the theory most recently described in the February 2004 paper above.

Get a FREE download of the** Galactic Gravitation Calculator**
software right here. See for yourself how it compares Newtonian gravitational
calculations of galactic mass with the new quantum-based formula. An explanation of
the gravitational theory underlying the operation of this program is included in the
program's Help files, which can be printed out.

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